Books and Journals
Documenti più recenti
- Ykpaiha 2022
Legitimate Aims, Illegitimate Aims and the E.Ct.H.R.: Changing Attitudes and Selective Strictness
This article aims to trace the recent changes in the case law of the European Court of Human Rights, pertaining to the legitimate aim test, which has so far not been appropriately considered in existing jurisprudence. It first shows that the legitimate aim test is not just a paper tiger, and has a bigger bite than it has been given credit for, especially for the last ten years. Furthermore, despite its “procedural turn”, the Court has recently been more inclined to take the legitimate aim disputes to a factual level by questioning the governments’ assertions of legitimate aims with regard to not only their legal justificatory capacities but also as to their factual accuracy. However, this shift towards a stricter, more sceptical approach is only observable against certain member states. This finding aligns with recent scholarship on the Court’s differentiated approach towards Member States, often called “the variable geometry”
Sale of Quotas for Greenhouse Gas Emissions as a Type Civil Sale and Purchase Contract
The article examines the emergence, development and current legal regulation of the sale and purchase agreement, and reveals the place of sale of quotas for greenhouse gas emissions in the system of civil contracts. The character of the sale of emission quotas between states is considered, as well as the legal nature of the quota sale (carbon units) contract in the framework of national jurisdictions. The authors conclude that the term “quota” means a quantitative limitation of greenhouse gas (G.H.G.) emissions, which should be understood as gaseous waste (G.W.), which has not received clear regulation in the national (Russian) law. Recognition of G.W. as a kind of industrial waste will make it possible to better understand and explain its legal nature, and directly the alienation of a certain amount (quota) of G.W. within the framework of civil legislation is the conclusion of a contract of sale of property rights belonging to the owner of G.W. to another business entity for a fee and for a certain period
Controlling Shareholders and Intra-Group Transactions: A Special Framework
Controlling shareholders and their activities in publicly traded companies have long stirred debate and controversy. Still dominating the corporate landscape across the world, concentrated ownership has been associated with both extraction of private benefits of control (P.B.C.) and entrepreneurship. Drawing on the theories on corporate control, this article contributes to accomplishing the law’s goal of promoting the entrepreneurial role of controlling shareholders, yet keeping P.B.C. extraction under restraint at the same time in the specific context of intra-group transactions – a breeding ground for both P.B.C. extraction and the implementation of an entrepreneurial idea by corporate controllers. The article submits nuanced and different means of overseeing intra-group transactions in a way that would optimally allow the implementation of a business plan by a controlling shareholder in a corporate group and protect minority shareholders, along with the examination of other issues that are relevant to the oversight of intra-group transactions
Legal Aspects of Review of Valid Rulings in Criminal Proceedings in Connection with Significant Violations of Substantive or Procedural Provisions of the Law
The aim of this article is to review the existing discipline of legal institutes in connection with significant violations of substantive or procedural legal norms and its significance in criminal proceedings in the Republic of Latvia and the Republic of Lithuania, their common and different features, problems and case law. The basis of the research is the analysis of regulatory enactments, court rulings, findings and opinions. The research is based on analytical and synthesis methods study of the correlations and differences in the legal regulation of criminal procedural law, comparative method comparison of specific legal regulations in the criminal procedural law of the Republic of Latvia and the Republic of Lithuania. The analytical method has been used to research, clarify and then evaluate the content of legal principles, terms, legal norms. The method has also been used to analyse court decisions. This method makes it possible to identify the main issues at stake in the content of specific legal provisions and to highlight their novelty, relevance or shortcomings. Statistical data processing methods have also been used in the research to collect and analyse data on a specific category of criminal cases in the Republic of Latvia and the Republic of Lithuania. The study analyses the case law of the Republic of Latvia and the Republic of Lithuania in cases where rulings have been re-examined after their entry into force. Data on such cases are summarised in four illustrations (figures). During the study, it has been established that the regulation of criminal procedure for the review of a judgement after its entry into force is similar in both countries, but the results of the reviewed cases are different. The criminal procedure regulations of the Republic of Latvia and the Republic of Lithuania, which provide for a new review of existing rulings if there exist significant violations of substantive or procedural law, are important to reach a fair decision by eliminating such significant violations committed by courts of first instance or appellate courts. Consequently, justice is achieved and the person’s right to a fair trial is ensured. However, a balance must also be struck between how to ensure the legal force of a valid judgement in accordance with the principle of res judicata, and how to guarantee the rights of individuals to a fair trial. When reviewing an existing decision, the Supreme Court must consider the balance between ensuring the legal force of a valid court judgement in accordance with the principle of res judicata, and guaranteeing the rights of individuals to a fair trial if significant violations of substantive or procedural norms of law come to the fore after the judgement has entered into force
- Securitizing Notes of Small Businesses and Needy Workers
Hero-systems, Military Dictatorship and the Silencing of Academic Community in Suriname
This paper is concerned with academic silencing in Suriname and its links with the conflict that took place at the national level, which was given scant consideration in research. Emphasis will be given to the establishment of the hero-system in order to ensure peace and the connections between academic silencing, dictatorship and law and order.
- A New International Crime of Ecocide?
Analyzing Authoritarianism and Democracy through Academic Freedom in Turkey
The article examines the concepts of authoritarianism and democracy in Turkey through an analysis of academic freedom. From its foundation, Turkish democracy has suffered from being hybrid, i.e., a combination of democratic and authoritarian elements. Since 2016, after the attempted coup d’état, Turkish parliamentarianism has been transformed into a one-man regime. This contribution analyses the new type of Turkish authoritarianism from its foundation, since the rise of Justice and Development Party (AKP), using the Gramscian concept of hegemony and the role of the intellectual. Then, the article presents an interview with a scholar still working in a Turkish university to better understand the state of academic freedom in Turkey.
Law in a Time of Corona: Global Pandemic, Supply Chain Disruption and Portents for 'Operationally-Linked (but) Legally Separate' Contracts
The novel coronavirus (Covid-19) pandemic has resulted in the disruption of activities in major centres of global production, with adverse portents for contractual obligations across global supply chains. The global pervasiveness and dynamic propagation of the risks arising from contractual failures provides an opportunity to reconsider the nature and impact of mechanisms for excusing failure to perform contractual obligations under adverse circumstances (Excuse). Such mechanisms include those found in the general law (for example, frustration in common law and analogous doctrines in civil law traditions) and contractual clauses (for example, Force Majeure and hardship clauses). Establishing extant rights and obligations under current contracts may provide only limited illumination on how parties will address these failures. Principles in economics of contract (e.g. incomplete contract and transaction cost theories) and the commercial reality of global supply chains both suggest that parties tend to lean towards contract- and relationship-saving adjustments, rather than strict enforcement of rights. Therefore, this article analyses the doctrinal and contractual regimes of Excuse with a view to assessing their respective scopes for transaction and relationship saving. It also highlights the peculiar nature of supply chain relationships wherein exchange partners enter into a sequence of dyadic relationships aimed at delivering a good or service to the end user. The tension between that operational logic and the legal principle of privity of contract makes these relationships – undergirded as they are by what we call "operationally-linked (but) legally separate" (O.L.L.S.) contracts – peculiarly vulnerable to mismatches in their Excuse regimes. Mismatches occur where failure to perform a determinant contract is more easily or much earlier excusable than in a dependent contract within the same chain operation. This may, in turn, exacerbate risks of supply chain disruptions in a pandemic scenario. The article designs a framework by which the doctrine-contract complex in the regimes may be used to test the dynamic scenarios of a global pandemic for the purpose of scanning for such mismatches. This framework will be useful in both post-event circumstances, as parties embark on relationship-saving negotiations, and in designing ex ante risk management measures. Through the understanding of the peculiarity of supply chain relationships and the O.L.L.S. contracts, this article also proposes to open up new directions in which the insights therefrom might be useful. An example suggested and prefatorily explored in this article is in the "governance beyond privity" conundrum in the context of supply chain disruption. Another is its potential contribution to the emerging multifactorial approach to determining frustration of contract in some common law courts