URN-based Identification of Legal Acts: The Case of the Italian Senate

Autore:Enrico Francesconi - Carlo Marchetti - Remigio Pietramala - Pierluigi Spinosa
Pagine:233-252
RIEPILOGO

1. Introduction - 2. Structure of the Identifier - 3. Reference Model for URN:LEX: the Structure - 4. Structure of the URN:LEX - 5. Structure of the Identifier at Work Level - 6. Structure of the URN:LEX Identifier at Expression Level - 7. Structure of the Identifier at Manifestation Level - 8. URN:LEX References - 9. The Resolution Service - 9.1. Catalogues for... (visualizza il riepilogo completo)

 
ESTRATTO GRATUITO
URN-based Identification of Legal Acts: The Case
of the Italian Senate
ENRI CO FRA NCE SCO NI, CA RLO MA RCHE TTI
REMI GIO PI ETR AMA LA, PI ERLUIG I SPINOSA
SUMM ARY:1. Introduction – 2. Structure of the Identifier – 3. Reference Model
for URN:LEX: the <local-name>Structure – 4. Structure of the URN:LEX <local-
name>– 5. Structure of the Identifier at Work Level – 6. Structure of the URN:LEX
Identifier at Expression Level – 7. Structure of the Identifier at Manifestation Le vel –
8. URN:LEX References – 9. The Resolution Service – 9.1. Catalogues for Resolution
– 9.2. Suggested Resolver Behaviour – 10. URN Standard within the Italian Senate
– 11. A Tool for Automatic Legal References Mark-up within the Italian Senate Web
Site – 12. Conclusions and Future Perspectives
1. INT RODU CTI ON
The growing need of quality and accessibility of legal information forim-
proving transparency and “certainty of law”, as essential pre-condition for
democracy, amplifies the need for interoperability among legal information
systems in national and international setting. A persistent, shared, open
standard identifier for legal documents at international level is the effective
ground to establish such interoperability for the implementation of the Se-
mantic Web concept in the legal domain.
Besides legal content providers, Internet content creators, including pub-
lishers operating well outside the traditional arenas of legal publishing (news,
technical documentation providers, etc.), can benefit by this standard be-
cause it facilitates the linking of legal documents and reduces the cost of
information system management and maintenance.
In the last few years a number of initiatives both within and outside Eu-
rope have arisen in the field of legal document standards to improve legal
document accessibility on the Internet1. In this paper we describe a standard
E. Francesconi and P. Spinosa are Researchers at the Institute of Legal Information
Theory and Techniques of the NationalResearch Council of Italy in Florence; C. Marchetti
and R. Pietramala belong to the Senate of the Republic of Italy. E. Francesconi is Author of
Sections 1, 2, 3, 4 and 9; P. Spinosa is Author of Sections 5, 6, 7, 8 and 12; C. Marchetti and
R. Pietramala are Authors of Sections 10 and 11.
1E. FRAN CESC ONI,Technologies for European Integration. Standards-based Interoperabil-
ity of Legal Information Systems, Firenze, European Press AcademicPublishing, 2007, 174 p.
234 Informatica e diritto /Proceedings of the Workshop LOAIT 2010
for the identification of sources of law, recently submitted to the IETF as In-
ternet Draft2: it is based on a URN technique3capable of scaling beyond
national boundaries as well as on the definition of a namespace convention
(LEX) and a structure that create and manage identifiers for sources of law
at international level.
The identifiers will be globally unique, transparent, persistent, location-
independent, and language-neutral. These qualities will facilitate legal docu-
ment management, moreover they will provide a mechanism of stable cross-
collections and cross-country references.
In this direction also the Permanent Bureau of the Hague Conference
on Private International Law4has recently expressed its opinion, encourag-
ing EU Member States to adopt “neutral methods of citation of their legal
materials, including methods that are medium-neutral, provider-neutral and
internationally consistent”.
This paper is organized as follows: in Section 2 the general structure of
the URN:LEX identifier is introduced; in Section 3 the FRBR model, which
the URN:LEX schema is based on, is described; in Sections 4, 5, 6 and 7 the
main components of the schema able to identify legal documents at differ-
ent levels of abstraction are shown; in Section 8 the modalities to establish
references to a document or part of it using the URN:LEX methodology
is briefly discussed; in Section 9 the principles of the resolution service are
described; in Sections 10 and 11 a URN:LEX schema national implementa-
tion and a tool for automatic legal references mark-up as used by the Italian
Senate are respectively described. Finally in Section 12 some conclusions
are reported.
2. STRUC TURE O F THE ID ENT IFI ER
As usual, the problem is to provide the right amount guidance at the core
of the standard while providing sufficient flexibility to cover a wide variety
2P.SP INOS A, E. FRAN CESC ONI, C. LU PO,A Uniform Resource Name (URN) Namespace
for Sources of Law (LEX), May 2010, http://datatracker.ietf.org/doc/draft-spinosa-urn- lex/.
3R. MOATS, K.R. SO LLI NS,URN Syntax, RFC 2141, May 1997; T. BER NERS -LEE, R.
FIEL DING, L. M ASINT ER,Uniform Resource Identifiers (URI): Generic Syntax, STD 66, RFC
3986, January 2005; L. DAIG LE, D. VAN GU LIK, R. IA NNE LLA, P. FALTSTRO M,Uniform
Resource Names (URN) Namespace Definition Mechanisms, BCP 66, RFC 3406, October 2002.
4See http://www.hcch.net.

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