390 Informatica e diritto /Il panorama internazionale e le buone pratiche
2. OPE N MODE LS AS NE W INSTRUM ENT FO R KNOWLE DGE ECOLOGY
The ultimate goal of open models is to give information a “sense” that
is transforming raw data into useful things and applications, directly, easily
and without too much rework. To achieve this Open Data “chain” the data
– open and raw so to be machine readable and easily reusable;
– public or publicly available (on the Internet);
– free from restrictions on their use which can be of a commercial na-
– identiﬁable through metadata;
– linkable so that by a simple URI, data can be point to, metadata be
examined, and information be downloaded.
The role of open models is to create a new concept of knowledge as a com-
mons which derives from the “knowledge ecology” concept. Knowledge
ecology is about studying and enhancing the ways in which the parts and
wholes of knowledge-generating systems relate to one another. It provides
a framework for organizations who want to maximize their beneﬁts from
emerging technologies to facilitate effectivecollaboration among their mem-
bers. Therefore, the central objective of knowledge ecology is to achieve the
goal of people-centered, inclusive and sustainable knowledge societies. A
participatory and representative knowledge ecology can achieve readability,
ﬁndability, connecting disparate and closely related information, enabling
communication between users in order that new knowledge is created1.
A new consensus needs to be achieved on traditional concepts such as
freedom of information and science, intellectual property and authorship.
Nowadays, with the crisis of the market paradigm, there is a chance for a
rebirth of the old idea of the commons and for the creation of an Open Data
Some of the key premises underlying the notion of knowledge ecology
may be extrapolated, based upon the observations of the natural ecosys-
tems2. These are as follows:
– Knowledge ecology primarily focuses on social networks of individ-
uals in contrast to the overly technological emphasis of traditional
1B. BOWOND ER, T. MIYAK E,Technology Management: A Knowledge Ecology Perspective,
in “International Journal of Technology Management”,Vol. 19, 2000, n. 7-8, pp. 662-684.
2Y.MA LHOT RA,Knowledge Management for Organizational White-Waters: An Ecological
Framework, in “Knowledge Management”, March1999, pp. 18-21.