In Spain nationality can be acquired in different ways.
Nationality by Option; Nationality by Residence; Nationality by Naturalization Card; Nationality by State Possession; 1) Nationality by Option is a benefit that the Spanish legislation offers to foreigners who are in certain conditions, so that they acquire Spanish nationality.
They can request the acquisition of the Spanish nationality in this way:
Those people who are or have been subject to the parental authority of a Spanish citizen. Those people whose father or mother was Spanish y were born in Spain. Those whose determination of filiation (the determination of filiation means establishing who are the parents of a person) or birth in Spain occurs after eighteen years of age. In this case, the term to apply for nationality is two years from the date of filiation or birth. Those persons whose adoption by Spaniards occurs after the age of eighteen. In this case, the right to opt exists until the expiration of two years from the date of adoption. 2) The nationality by residence, which is one of the most common way to acquire Spanish nationality, is obtained through the residency in the Spanish territory for a certain period of time.
The normal term is ten years, in which the person must reside in the Spanish territory legally and continuously in the period prior to the request.
In some special cases, shorter periods are required:
Five years: for people who have refugee status. Two years: for those who have the nationality of Ibero-American countries: Andorra, the Philippines, Equatorial Guinea, Portugal or people of Sephardic origin. One year for: those born in Spanish territory. who has not duly exercised his right to acquire Spanish nationality by option. who has been legally subject to the guardianship (under the supervision of a guardian), guardian or foster care of a Spanish citizen or institution for two consecutive years, even if he will continue in this situation at the time of the request after one year of marriage with a Spanish citizen and he is not legally or...