standard error of the mean

Valutazione di vLex

Untangling the causal relationship between tax burden distribution and economic growth in 23 OECD countries: Fresh evidence from linear and nonlinear Granger causality.
...This means that researchers often neglect a possible nonlinear relationship ...In addition, unlike the standard symmetric methods, the asymmetric (7) version of Kyrtsou and ... and Mohammed (2014) adopt a panel corrected standard errors model to examine the nexus between tax structure and economic ...

Are both dimensions of property rights "efficient"?
...A higher income means a higher demand and a better technology for enforcement. ... too, which are called controls; [epsilon] and [eta] are the error terms, and i denotes a country. . The implication of my argument ...115 99 110 Heteroscedasticity robust standard errors are in parentheses. Letters in the upper index refer to ...

Could Mexico become the new 'China'? Policy drivers of competitiveness and productivity.
...Following Hsieh and Klenow (2009, 2014), we use the standard deviation of firms' TFP to illustrate this misallocation. (4) A arger dispersion means that lowproductivity firms are employing resources that could be ...industry specific effects, and [[epsilon].sub.i,s,t] is the error term. This specification suffers, however, from a potential ...

The oil price and exchange rate relationship revisited: a timevarying VAR parameter approach.
...With an analysis based on impulse responses and forecast error variance decomposition, Akram (2009) focuses on the relationship ..., contemporaneous and lagged, and timevarying standarderror of structural innovations: . [B.sub.t][Y.sub.t] = [d.sub.t] ... p(*) and density functions f(*) are linear Gaussian with means and variances given by . [[alpha].sub.tt+1] = E ...

Privatization, foreign acquisition, and firm performance: a new empirical methodology and its application to Hungary.
... demand accountability in accordance with international standards from company managers in an effort to assess their performance on ....i] is the individual effects, and [[epsilon].sub.it] is an error term. (14) The regression model taking an ownership variable with ... the unknown true population parameter [theta] is a weighted mean by the inverse variance of each estimate: . [bar.T] = ...

Domestic multinationals and foreignowned firms in Italy: evidence from quantile regression.
... the variable for different types of firms and not just the mean. The QR permits evaluation of the differences across and within .... Table 2 reports mean and standard deviations of the key variables employed, for foreign owned ...; [Time.sub.t] is a time dummy and [[epsilon].sub.it] is the error term. (11) [beta], [delta], [gamma], and [theta] represent the ...

Wage inequality in workers' cooperatives and conventional firms.
... of wealth whenever the median income is lower than the mean (Kremer 1997). Another point of view considers ex ante selection: ... equal to 1 if the firm is a SCOP and [[epsilon].sub.ij] the error term. . Next, we must go into more detail regarding the impact of ...All regressions are run with clustered standard errors to allow for intragroup correlation. . The joblevel ...

On the time varying relationship between oil price and G7 equity index: a multivariate approach.
... Conclusion drawn from the estimation of a bivariateGARCHinmean model highlights that oil price volatility has a positive effects ... (VAR) model and the focus is to compute the forecast error variance decompositions. The main findings of this study suggests ...[D.sub.t] : Diagonal matrix of timevarying standard deviations calculated from a GARCH model, having (k x k) ...

Is corruption efficiencyenhancing? A case study of the Central and Eastern European region.
... how fighting corruption in the CEE region is a significant means to reduce both capital and labour misallocation across firms and ...Profit maximization yields the standard condition that the firm's output price is a fixed markup over ...Group averaging is also useful to mitigate measurement error, since errors are largely idiosyncratic to firms and uncorrelated ...

A random walk to economic freedom?
...This suggests that Type I error, accepting a variable as being a significant determinant of ... countries, the time series is too short to conduct a meaningful test for a random walk in each country. To conduct a test for a ..., then the impact of a change in these variables by one standard deviation is unable to change the level of overall economic ...

The outofsample forecasting performance of nonlinear models of real exchange rate behaviour: the case of the South African rand.
... of fundamentals, Fattouh et al., (2008) shows that a linear error correction model comprising of fundamentals, produces lower one ...The deviation of the two exchange rates from their means is not high. A data series that is normally distributed has a ... that the Diebold and Mariano (1995) statistic has a nonstandard limiting distribution when comparing forecasts from two nested ...

Education and fertility: a comparative microeconometric analysis in Europe.
...The ECHP is a standardized multipurpose longitudinal survey designed and coordinated by the ..., we identify two levels of income, one lower than the mean value (Lowhincome) and one higher the mean value. Moreover, we ... if the instruments are uncorrelated with the structural error but correlated with the endogenous regressor (education). To ...

International trade in outermost Europe: a comparative analysis of Mayotte Island and French overseas departments.
...To suggest potential means to address these challenges, we analyze the nature and volume of ... continuously, largely due to increasing living standards and the relatively rapid modernization of the economy, combined ... is a serious concern for data in which the variance of the errors differs across observations and the estimated standard errors can ...

Informing water policies with a residential water demand function: the case of Serbia.
...The water demand function approach relies on standard neoclassical economic assumptions. The utility of a ... namely the fixed effects model and the random effects (or error components) model. We propose to use these two estimators and to ... most of the districts the model performs quite well, with a mean absolute percentage error representing 18.64%. . It should be ...

Fighting African capital flight: empirics on benchmarking policy harmonization.
... flight is feasible and; (2) full (100%) convergence will mean, the enforcements of these policies without distinction of ... (Fung, 2009, 59), the two equations below are the standard approaches in the literature for investigating conditional ...specific constant and [[epsilon].sub.i,t] ([u.sub.i,t]) an error term. Consistent with the neoclassical growth model, a ...

European region types in EU25.
... methodologically adequately with spatial proximity and the error of spatial autocorrelation in crosssection estimates as ... nonurban and 4 types of urban regions, it is assessed by means of econometric estimations, whether these types do explain ... labour productivity, due to easier possibility of standardization, easier replication (Baumol et al 1989) and the associated ...

The democracy and economic growth nexus: empirical evidence from cote d'Ivoire.
...Next, we use the Granger causality test within a vector error correction model (VECM) and estimate three different models using ... and long run causality but it cannot be captured by the standard first difference VAR model (Granger, 1988). In this case, we ...: Descriptive statistics of the variables Variables Number of Mean Std. Min Max observations Dev Dur 53 14.02 12.86 0 38 Demo 53 ...

Migration, remittances and educational levels of household members left behind: evidence from rural Morocco.
...' remittances are an important resource that can be a means to promote its development. However, beyond their quantitative ... with the ones that we obtain when we follow the more standard approach in the literature. In fact, the implicit assumption in ... the vector of explanatory variables and [u.sub.ih] is the error term. This latent variable which corresponds to the outcome ...

A comparison of pre and postcrisis efficiency of OECD countries: evidence from a model with temporal heterogeneity in time and unobservable individual effects.
..., by using dummy variables or structural assumptions on an error term (Baltagi, 2005; among others). Nevertheless, this approach ...Efficiency means a comparison between observed and optimal values of its output ... country i at time t is calculated in the same way as for standard timeinvariant fixed effects and random effects models: . ...

Secular decline in profit rates: time series analysis of a classical hypothesis.
...Fixed capital included both means of production and residential capital. Capital stock was ... (overall significance of equation, adjusted [R.sup.2], standard error, normality, autocorrelation, White heteroscedasticity, ...

Capital mobility in the panel GMM framework: evidence from EU members.
...The standard GMM estimators do not deal with crosssectional dependence. ... for its asymptotic efficiency, if the correlation in the errors exists, it is weak, because "the sequence of the covariances of ...), 'The Great Trade Collapse: What Caused it and What does it mean?', in Baldwin R. (ed.), The Great Trade Collapse: Causes, ...

Understanding informationseeking behavior and the needs of Italian legal users in accessing legal literature
The legal literature's users context  2. Research methodology  2.1. Literature reviews outline of legal doctrine access issues  2.2. Characteristics of the questionnaire survey and sample  2.3. Data analysis and results  3. Conclusions  Appendix: Questionnaire
... scale ranking the importance of information sources, the mean scores, standard deviation and standard error have been ...

The impact of trade integration on business cycle synchronization for Mercosur countries.
...(13) . Finally, the error term [[epsilon].sub.tj[tau]] represents the numerous influences ... American countries) and thus trade integration, rolling standard deviation (14) of the first difference of the natural logarithm ...The mean correlation reported in table 3 is based on a simple arithmetic ...

Do gender quotas influence women's representation and policies?
...(16) Arab societies use all possible means to entrench their valuebased heritage, by promoting customs and ...Standard errors in parentheses. One, two and three * indicate significance ...

Assessing lending market concentration in Bulgaria: the application of a new measure of concentration.
...To assess these effects, we analyse the standard concentration measures and the differences among them. . 3. The ... with past and possibly current realisation of the error term. For instance, the amount of loans and the interest margin ... for choosing the lag of the dependent variable, which means testing the relevance of additional restrictions. The more lags ...